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JOHANN  ELIAS  RIDINGER

Ulm 1698 – Augsburg 1767

 

Literature  +  Events

1723 – 2014

(all in German)

The 25-year-old Ridinger – thus, as highly interesting, in the same age in which one day Thomas Mann “will lay his international reputation with the ‘Buddenbrooks’” (Lennartz), what still one hundred years later Heinz Berggruen lets ask for the origin of worldly wisdom and maturity for it, in which Gottfried Benn publishes with “Under the Cerebral Cortex” his first prose text, which he later “uses so to speak as quarry” (FAZ 8-24-01 + 8-22-03) – sets up the change of the depiction of heroic acts to the reflection on these – for that in literature still Jacques Louis David and the time of about only 1800 stand – by the drawing “Alexander the Great at the Hyphasis in Punjab, India, in autumn 326 B.C.”, not published by engraving, taking up and handling psychologically brilliantly a turning point of world history as together absolutely unprecedentedly civilizing moment. And shall out of this starting hole, also here just like as a quarry and in cooperation with Barthold Heinrich Brockes (d. 1747) as writer, let follow the verdict not only of the Alexander campaign, rather of the claim to might of absolutism, whose representatives worship to him, as a whole by the set “Fights of Killing Animals” (Thienemann 716-723) worked already in the ’30s, but published only in 1760.

About 1725 Ridinger prints according to Wend[1] “the presumably earliest German mezzotint in colors” by a Stag Hunting (Schwerdt III, plate 214; erlebnis ridinger, p. 5; colored each) and that in chronologically thinkably greatest nearness to the real invention of printing by several plates, Jakob Christoffel Le Blond, which only about 1720 achieved proved results in London.

In 1729 Ridinger publishes, now on his own account, his 36-sheet set “Complete and Exhaustive Representation of the Splendid Princes’ Pleasure or of the Noble Hunt” as prelude like a beat of the drum to a series of primer-like hunting sets.

In 1735 at the latest Ridinger starts his monumental work of the Wondrous Stags, see per 1768.

Ridinger is co-editor, co-publisher and co-engraver of Weinmanns 1025-sheet folios “Phytanthoza Iconographia – (Or actual Presentation of several Thousands both indigenous and exotic … collected Plants, Trees, Shrubs, Flowers, Fruit, and Sponges” published from 1735 to 1745 as for its size “alone already a rarity in the botanical literature … but above all first botanical use of the later so-called English color printing, and, as far as Germany is concerned, also almost the one and only … Especially the rich palette of both printed colors and those applied by hand is to be praised, which also in the heyday of the botanical color printing seldom has been reached again and (only far later) surpassed in only a few prints by Turpin (1775-1840; Nissen). – “The book may be called the first successful botanical book using color-printed mezzotint” (Hunt).

From 1738 to 1755 Ridinger publishes with his 126-sheet Design of Several Animals, How such are drawn from Life after their Different Nature, Actions and Passions, along with included Annotations his natural historically large work “in the most public interest” (Th.).

In 1744 Ridinger welcomes by two engravings as documents of a moment of German history the Bavarian elector Karl Albert on occasion of his return to Munich as German Emperor Karl VIIth, whom Goethe’s father owed his “Imperial Councillor”.

In 1744 Ridinger publishes the 16-sheet basic set “Instructive Fables from the Animal Kingdom for Improvement of the Manners and especially for Instruction of the Youth” by which

“(he) pursued a typical purpose of his epoch. A ‘Correction of Manners’ by the morale efficacy of art – though in quite a different manner – William Hogarth, almost of the same age as Ridinger, had attempted by his paintings and prints … Yet while Hogarth and Chodowiecki tried to gain recognition for their (identical) ideas by satirical sets, as A Rake’s Progress, 1735 … Ridinger built on the – especially suitable to him (that is, so he himself, ‘since the hoary times of the ancient ages’) – tradition of the animal fable” (Morét)[2]. By which he furthermore at the same time also, creating a new image type, left behind once more tradition and field. For “No  similarities  to  fable  illustrations  known  hitherto” (Bodemann[3]).

In 1746 Ridinger delivers “a few squares” oils to the court of the czar.

The 50-year-old Ridinger treats himself to think about whether he should accept a sequel-order of tsarina Elisaveta Petrovna, daughter of Peter the Great, for further oils in respect of his being fully busied with drawings and etchings, but meaning, so with letter to Wille[4] in Paris of June 29, 1748, “that I myself could not shirk to accept it in view of the former order, hoping to finish these four pieces up to the end of October”.

In 1763 Ridinger’s eldest, Martin Elias, greets – analogous to the father’s 1744 imperial welcome – the Treaty of Hubertusburg, ending the Seven Years’ War as a global conflict of modern dimension and establishing Prussia as European power, by working the Hubertusburg badger after his father’s drawing. Suggestively the badger has been dug there just in the same year, 1724, when Hubertusburg Castle was completed.

In 1768 Ridinger’s sons close by title-engraving their father’s monumental set of the “Representation of the most Wondrous Stags as other special Animals … on high orders and for the pleasure of all friends and lovers of the rarities showing up in nature” grown since 1735 at the latest by which the master intellectually and graphically opened a new story of animal depiction. That to see in this abundance completed was a substantial co-merit of Martin Elias since whose Hubertusburg badger, see per 1763.

In 1768 Ridinger’s sons close by two title-engravings the Colored Animal Kingdom finished still by the father as one of the finest illuminated animal books of all times. With its 127 sheet it is together the most voluminous of the Ridinger sets.

In 1770 Ridinger’s sons publish the 50-sheet “Representation of the Horses after their Main colors”, worked still by the father, too, as a further highlight of illuminated natural historically book art.

Lord Ribblesdale as a contemporary purchases ca. 900-sheet folios in russia. – See hereto below per 1951.

The Pembroke Library at Wilton House, formed during several generations of important bibliophiles, obtains about 1770 46 suites or part sets with 716 sheets, purchased presumably 1768 in Paris probably by Henry Herbert, 10th Earl of Pembroke, 7th of Montgomery (1734-1794) and bound up for him into five folios of English red morocco as typical for the library.

In 1771 Ferdinand von Kobell, painter’s colleague of the next generation, laments as 31-year-old towards Wille[5] “the bugs of the clique of copperplate engravers in the poor Augsburg” and “that in such a locality one Ridinger – and Rugendas had to live”.

In 1772 Johann Caspar Füssli, painter’s colleague and artists’ biographer of the Ridinger generation, laments towards Wille[6] in Paris “since I have lost Ridinger I do no more find another German friend who pays attention to art”.

In August 1824 the art dealers and publishers Martin Engelbrecht, “since a few years in the possession of Johann Elias Ridinger’s art’s publishing house”, lay out in association with the art dealer Herzberg, both Augsburg, a voluminous subscription program of the works of Ridinger, which latter “still always lives in the most glorious remembrance of the world of artists”. As result of the former small editions proving the multiple rarity of sheets by Ridinger the plates (such ones as unique collector’s pieces now here in stock) delivered “without any refreshing help thanks to the completed copperplate printing and its functional setting impressions … which … surpass older impressions in regard of pureness and power and … will have the virtue to keep their colors in the same state”. What latter examples here attest, but without being in the position to compete with contemporary impressions.

In 1830 J. A. C. Weigel in Leipsic acquires from the Ridinger heirs the bequest of the master’s drawings. After the opinion here additionally working copies of graphic sets, too.

Thienemann, Georg Aug(ust) Wilh(elm). (Life and Work of the Incomparable Animal-Painter and Engraver Johann Elias Ridinger.) Leipsic 1856. – Œuvre catalog of the prints with list of the drawings. – Online version published continuously (see below).

The Youthful Photography feels Enthusiastic for Ridinger. In 1865 Alfred Coppenrath in Regensburg starts with 50 of the “Finest and Rarest Deer and Roebuck Abnormities” photographed by Johann Laifle from the sets of the Wondrous and the “Special Hunting Events” as well as the two almost-unica Thienemann 1299 + 1325. In 1867 + 1873/75 the competitors follow with sets of 84 (recte only 24?) and 70 (recte only 48?) sheets resp. Common to all three undertakings their immense rarity.

Johann Elias Ridinger’s (Art Estate of Drawings) in (Catalog of the Collection of Drawings … found and left by J. A. G. Weigel. Leipsic 1869.

In 1890 Wawra at Vienna sells at auction “(A Fine Ridinger Collection of Drawings – 234 in 146 lots – and Engravings from the Possession of a Known Collector)”.

In 1900 Helbing at Munich publishes his 1554-item catalog XXXIV, “(Prints and Drawings by J. E. and M. E. Ridinger)”.

In 1901 Ernst Welisch[7] characterizes Ridinger as indisputably “most important Augsburg landscapist of his time … although he is primarily known as animal painter”.

In 1903 Baron von Gutmann at Vienna acquires the rich Ridinger collection of Josef Horn.

In 1905 Baron von Gutmann at Vienna acquires the quite spectacular set of the so-called Marjoribanks Folios in their 18th century French armorial morocco from an English private collection. – See the color ills. in the 1998 jubilee catalog here “(experience ridinger 1698-1998)”, p. 9.

Schwarz. Ign(az). (Catalog of a Ridinger Collection.) 2 vols. 1910. – The author’s edition of the splendid 1718-item catalog of the famous collection of Rudolf Ritter von Gutmann from the Austrian Rothschild line printed in 202 copies, two of which on vellum-like paper with the numerous illustrations + 118 plates mounted and bound in armorial vellum numbered in Roman. – This catalog, accessible by 6 (!) indices, is the noblest curtsey of literature to Ridinger’s œuvre. And the indispensible addition beside Thienemann and far beyond him.

Available  here  the  baron’s  own  no. I  !

In 1913 Franz Marc presents his woodcut “Riding Scenery after Ridinger” (Lankheit 839) for what he used the already mounted rider of the 3rd sheet from Ridinger’s earliest school, his “New Horsemanship” of 1722 (Thienemann 608). It is the year of the “Tower of the Blue Horses” as one of the icons of modernity, “the richest (year) in the artistic work of Franz Marc” (Christian von Holst). And together with the coincident woodcut “Lion Hunting after Delacroix” the work stands for that moment of which “one may speak of a literal coming of the rider in the œuvre of Marc … The animalization of the art (aspired again and again) by Marc by an abstracting sympathetic understanding in the horse and the others of the animal world … now tipps over repeatedly in the revival of unity of horse and rider … In 1912 he himself presents in a postcard to Else Lasker-Schüler as “Blue Rider” standing next to and behind resp. his horse blending with him to a unity (from the point of view here an anticipation to the “powerfully rhythmic depiction” of the “Ridinger Scenery after Ridinger”) … The hound below right (on the latter) reminding the onlooker rather of a hunting scene is owing … to the ‘New Horsemanship’ by Ridinger, too (cf. the corresponding hounds on the sheets 5, 18 and 22). He looks back as if he would wish to see where his master, the rider, remains. An atmosphere of start full of suspense sets the tone of determine turning Ridinger’s background figure of the rider into the real protagonist. In their extreme impulse of motion the rider and the horse form a unity. Though Marc quotes with Ridinger a specialist of the trained horse it doesn’t go for him for an artificial symbiosis of man-animal articulated especially in the training of the horse in the artificial pace” (Andreas Schalhorn). And “Instructively that Marc at his very familiar acquaintance with art history turns just to these masters of horse depiction (Delacroix and Ridinger) of the 19th and 20th centuries resp. as models ” (von Holst[8]). The par force scenery on the watercolor “Ried Castle” – Holst, ills. 11 – worked one year later stands for a further example of the occupation with Ridinger.

In 1951 Sotheby’s London sells the legendary Ribblesdale Folios, see above, as with about 900 sheets possibly the most extensive among the small group of highly carated contemporary albums.

In 1958 Karl & Faber at Munich sell the rich Ridinger collection of the Counts of Faber-Castell. Included that 95-sheet corpus of drawings whose one (of three) rhinoceros will be catapulted at Sotheby’s London in 1991 – see there – from 2-3000 to 20000 £.

Stubbe, Wolf. Johann Elias Ridinger. 1966. – Regarding Ridinger’s one of the more seldom art-historical voices (1933-1969 Hamburg Art Hall, “standing out as authority on graphics. Under his direction the print room collection grew … to one of the most substantial and voluminous among the German museums … his special interest was directed in addition to the old master graphics of both the 18th/19th centuries as the 20th, too, where his unconventional sight opened new terrain, leading in 1963 to the decisive publication ‘Graphik des 20. Jahrhunderts’ …”, Ernst Nolte in June 2000 on occasion of the auction of a portion of his collection, H & N 348, p. 6). Corresponding to that here then an essential contribution to the art-historical opening of Ridinger’s artist’s personality, examined in the light of the hunting/animal graphics with the result of both technical bravery and scenically quite remarkable further development, on which latter merits Ernst Welisch as presumable the first had called attention to, see per 1901. – Horst Janssen’s etched greeting to Stubbe’s 85th “[Backhuizen greets Stubbe / to 7th 6th 1988 Dear old friend Wolf Stubbe – today I do not have any appetite for A(ntonie). Waterloo – but this heartily]”.

The Augsburg Art Collections honour “Johann Elias Ridinger 1698-1767” with a commemorative exhibition at Holbein House. – Ills. catalog by Rolf Biedermann.

The Czechoslovakian Postal Authorities honour Ridinger with the highest value (2.40 Kčs.) within the 5-sheet postage-stamp-set “Horses” published April 21, 1969, depicting the title-etching of his most famous 18-sheet Spanish or Vienna riding school of 1734 Thienemann + Schwarz 628-645; ask for single plates of this) as the one and only in color, too. – The other motifs in the sequence of their value as following: Hendrik GoltziusMatthäus Merian – the compatriote Václav HollarAlbrecht Dürer. –.

In 1976 Sotheby’s Amsterdam sells at auction Ridinger’s quite spectacular self-portrait with death made in the year of his death mentioned by Thienemann p. XXI, no. 4 as being in the Weigel collection, but missing already in the 1869 Weigel catalog of the left drawings. – Ridinger Catalog Darmstadt, 1999, I.5 with color ills. 9 + b/w ills. p. 61. – Now in the Berlin Printroom.

In 1983 Michael Bauer[9] resumes with Ridinger and Nilson (the latter quite contrarily dismissed expressly together with the pack by Kobell, see per 1771)  “the  two important engravers of (Augsburg) in the last third of the 18th century have died without leaving behind even still almost worthy followers”.

In 1987 Rolf Biedermann[10] qualifies Ridinger as “one of the few German Baroque artists … who since his death … never fell into oblivion, whose animal and hunt depictions are highly coveted by collectors till today and highly traded by dealers, so (that) the limited attention surprises the science of art has shown towards him so far”.

In 1991 Sotheby’s London catapults at auction Ridinger’s preparatory drawing to the rhinoceros Thienemann 295 from 2-3000 £ to 20000 £. – See to this above per 1958. – Now in the Ratjen Foundation Vaduz.

Niemeyer, L. H. (The Unknown Ridinger – Aspects to the Painter, Draughtsman and Engraver.) Munich, WELTKUNST, Oct. 15, 1994.

Teylers Museum Haarlem opens the doors on June 8, 1997, for its exhibition in the Aquarellenzaal “German Prints 1500-1850” with biblical and mythological themes, landscapes, animal depictions, and portraits. Besides Dürer as central point whose Saint Eustachius/Hubert is the eye-catcher on the internet only the works of Hollar + Ridinger are emphasized.

Veit, Manfred. (Johann Elias Ridinger and the Green Pasture near Neuburg on the Danube, Bavaria) published in vol. CVL (1997) of the publications of the Neuburg Historical Society.

The National Museum at Kielce, Poland, starts its great 1997/98 Ridinger 300th birthday exhibtion touring throughout Poland as “the largest Polish museum exhibition of the engravings and mezzotints of one of the most famous graphic artists of the XVIIIth century … whose rank in art history rises higher and higher in time” (Alojzy Oborny, Director of the National Museum at Kielce in the noble Polish-German exhibition catalog; 4to. 88 pp., 72 ills., 35 of which full-paged, wrappers). – Sponsored by the Minestry of the Interior of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Stiftung für deutsch-polnische Zusammenarbeit at Warsaw.

The Technische Universität Dresden, Saxony, opens its long-term special exhibition “Johann Elias Ridinger” at Grillenburg Castle on February 16, 1998, as the 300th birthday.

The Ridinger Gallery Niemeyer congratulates “the triumphing master and his friends on the 300th birthday” on February 16, 1998, with the catalog (experience Ridinger 1698-1998) published as issue 20 of the “publications of the ridinger gallery niemeyer”. – Printed by the Christians Druckerei Hamburg, established in best Ridinger time (1740) and just in the native place of the master’s famous friend and collaborator Barthold Heinrich Brockes (poet, jurist and senator, 1680-1747) in 1984 Arabic numbered copies (4to. XI, 1, 88 pp., 53 partly full-paged ills., 26 of which in color, 3 folded, color ills. cover; and 16 unnumbered copies signed by the ridinger gallerist l. h. niemeyer and bound in event-iridescently stamped white Sahel-kid-leather along with a green stamped halfleather slipcase. – Samples + contents. – Qualified as a jubilee edition by the German Library and so included in the German National Bibliography.

TV Bavaria congratulates “Johann Elias Ridinger” on February 21, 1998, on his 300th birthday.

Lochmann, Klaus. (The Animal World and Hunting Motifs fascinated him. Special Exposition on the 300th Birthday of the Painter, Draughtsman and Engraver Johann Elias Ridinger at Grillenburg Castle.) Published in the University Journal of the Technische Universität Dresden on 21st February, 1998.

The Technische Universität Dresden features Johann Elias Ridinger with a ceremonial act at Grillenburg Castle on 27th April, 1998. – Lectures by Klaus Lochmann (History and Topicality of Ridinger’s Hunting Art) + L. H. Niemeyer (The Minimized Ridinger, see below).

The Corvey Castle Museum at Höxter-Corvey takes over the Polish Ridinger exhibition of 1997/98 as a five month show in 1999.

The Animal Presentations of Johann Elias Ridinger. The Darmstadt two month special exhibition opens on 28th May, 1999, at Kranichstein Castle. – The catalog by Stefan Morét + Arnulf Rosenstock published as issue 2 of the museum’s publications (sm. 4to, 140 pp., 160 ills., 9 of which in color, 2 double full-paged, green ills. cover).

Siebert, Gisela + Wolfgang Weitz. (Ridinger – Pictures to the Hunting in Hesse-Darmstadt.) Catalog to the exhibition in Ulrichstein, Oct./Nov. 1999. Ulrichstein 1999 (4to, 55 pp., 19 full-page ills., green cover).

Niemeyer, L. H. (Dresden Address – The Minimized Ridinger.) Enlarged and revised internet version updated per July 17, 2000, of the speech delivered to the audience of the Ridinger ceremonial act of the Technische Universität Dresden as above. – In respect of references to Hogarth the speech is designated for inclusion into the international 2 vols. Hogarth bibliography prepared by Bernd Krysmanski.

The Ridinger Gallery Niemeyer presents Thienemann Online. The œuvre catalog of the prints with list of drawings by Georg Aug(ust) Wilh(elm) Thienemann – see above – transferred to the internet for immediate access & enhanced search capabilities from everywhere for everyone. With full intergration of the appendixes. – Built up on a continous base.

Niemeyer, L. H. (The Vanitas Symbolism with Johann Elias Ridinger.) Lecture to the audience of the 6th annual meeting of the European Dance Macabre Association at Bamberg on April 29, 2000. – Enlarged and revised internet version. – A partly illustrated version has been published in the 2nd yearbook of the society, L’Art Macabre 2, ed. by Uli Wunderlich, Dusseldorf 2001, pp. 94-112. – In respect of references to Hogarth the lecture is designated for inclusion into the international 2 vols. Hogarth bibliography prepared by Bernd Krysmanski.

The Emsland Museum Sögel opens on 28th May, 2000, at Clemenswerth Castle its three month special exhibition “The Animal Presentation of Johann Elias Ridinger”, i. a. with parts of the 1999 Darmstadt exhibition.

Liège University starts on 2nd June, 2000, its Internet Catalog “Le Site des Collections artistique de l’Université de Liège” (Légataire Galerie Wittert, Lugt 205 + 1681a), among them Ridinger (modified July 17, 2001).

Church & Co Footwear Ltd, Northampton, start on March 15, 2001, in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung its advertising campaign for young people and early middle ages in front of one of Ridinger’s 18 etchings from his famous “Large or Vienna Riding School” of 1734 (ask for single plates of this).

The Augsburg Art Collections present the complete set of the 12 original printing-plates of Ridinger’s “The Paradise” (ask for contemporary impressions of these) along with two other Ridinger items within their 3-month special exhibition “KUNSTREICH – (Acquisitions) 1990-2000” started on March 30, 2001.

Niemeyer, L. H. Augsburg + Ridinger. Speech in the Augsburg Art Collections within a “Ceremony for Johann Elias Ridinger” held on July 10, 2001, along with a Ridinger cabinet exhibition up to August 26, 2001, on the occasion of his benefaction of the original printing-plates of the Ridinger pendants “The Disturbed Ducks”, Thienemann 389/90, the preparatory drawings of which being in the collections (Augsburg exhibition catalog [Master Drawings of German Baroque], 1987, nos. 164 f. with illustrations).

The Medical Historical Museum of the Zurich University starts on April 26, 2002, its Annual Exhibition “Born over the Grave” (free after Samuel Beckett, Waiting for Godot) – Labour in Medicine and Arts running till October 31, 2002, including Ridinger mezzotints of the work group of the saints and genre contributed by ridinger gallery niemeyer (ask for such examples available here in excellent qualities). See the large ills. “The Neglected Household”, Thienemann 1473, within the group “Infant Welfare” on p. 196 within the accompanying book of the same name by Christoph Mörgeli + Uli Wunderlich (Bern, Benteli, 2002, 4to, 259 pp. with 366 widely full-page ills., most of them in color, orig.board, ISBN 3-7165-1277-X, Sfr. 68/EUR 45 / c. US$ 60).

The Meiningen Museums open on June 19, 2002, at Elisabethenburg Castle their 10-week special exhibition “Johann Elias Ridinger – Princes’ Hunting Pleasure” as a selection of the œuvre representively conceived up to the “representations of saints or gallant scenes” by which “a pretty intensive glare will be pointed on an artist whom the research just still must discover again in his whole importance after a long phase of falling into oblivion”.

The Deutschordensmuseum Bad Mergentheim takes over and opens at 22nd July, 2003 the Ridinger touring exhibition “The Prince’s Hunting Pleasure” with about 160 exhibits, opened up to October 26, 2003.

2003 Munich magister work on Ridinger.

Niemeyer, L. H. (The Fruitful Penetration – Watteau in Ridinger’s Œuvre)

“MILITARY HISTORY”, Leesburg/VA, publishes in June 2004 (XXI/2) within the title story “ALEXANDER THE GREAT – Lone Stand in India / Alexander’s Most Heroic Moment” by Peter G. Tsouras Ridinger’s 1723 Alexander drawing (p. 30; see above).

Indiana University Press publishes in 2005 “The Musical Topic” by Raymond Monelle, University of Edinburgh, and documents the art to play with the one hand the “Trompe Dauphine” or “Cor Dampierre” and by the other to control the horse by means of the Ridinger etching “Par force Hunter with the Pack – Chasseur par force avec la meute” (Th. 115) from the Falconers set.

Bavarian Baiersbronn Touristik shows in its permanent exhibition to the history of Baiersbronn in the Glasmännle mountain lodge on the Stöckerkopf opened in 2006 in one of the 12 charts Ridinger’s “To catch the Wolf in the Pit with the Sheep” as reproduction of the painterly original drawing to Th. 41 offered here to illustrate just such an appliance at the near Wasen lodge.

Wild und Hund  features the 310th Ridinger Birthday by a richly illustrated 6-page portrait of the ridinger gallery niemeyer (2008, issue 23).

Last updated June 12, 2014.

 

Notes

[1] Johannes Wend, Ergänzungen zu den Œuvreverzeichnissen der Druckgrafik, vol. I.1, 1975, no. 94. – Back
[2] Stefan Morét, Die Tierdarstellungen von Johann Elias Ridinger. Darmstadt, Stiftung Hessischer Jägerhof, 1999, p. 96. – Back
[3] Ulrike Bodemann in Metzner-Raabe, Illustr. Fabelbuch, 1998, vol. II, 123.I. – Back
[4] Johann Georg Wille (1715-1808), Briefwechsel. Ed. by Decultot, Espagne + Werner. 1999. PP. 76 ff. – Back
[5] op. cit., p. 486. – Back
[6] op. cit. p. 499. – Back
[7] Ernst Welisch, Beiträge zur Geschichte der Augsburger Maler im 18. Jahrhundert, 1901, pp. 91 ff. – Back
[8] The quotations from Christian von Holst (ed.), Franz Marc – Pferde, catalog of the 2000 exhibition of the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart – special edition 2003 – , pp. 122, 250 f. + 165 f. along with illustrations 151 f., 208 + 9. – Back
[9] Michael Bauer, Christoph Weigel (1654-1725) Kupferstecher und Kunsthändler in Augsburg und Nürnberg – Separate printing from “Archiv für Geschichte des Buchwesens”, vol. 23 – , 1983, col. 745. – Back
[10] Rolf Biedermann, Meisterzeichnungen des deutschen Barock, 1987, p. 338. – Back

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